"Indus Valley Civilization" ke revisions ke biich ke antar

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[[Image:Mohenjodaro Sindh.jpeg|thumbnail|right|260px|sindh men mohenjodaaro men harppaa sanskriti ke avashesh]]
'''Indus Valley civilization'''(3300-1700 iB.puuC.) vishv ki praachin nadi ghaati civilizationon men se ek pramukh civilization thi. Yah harppaa civilization aur sindhu-sarasvati civilization ke naam se bhi jaani jaati hae. Isakaa vikaas [[Sindhu nadi|sindhu]] aur ghaghghara/hakaraa (praachin sarasvati) ke kinaare huaa. <ref name="ching 2006 28-32">{{cite book|last=Ching|first=Francis D. K.|coauthors=Jarzombek, Mark;Prakash, Vikramaditya|year=2006|title=A Global History of Architecture|location=Hoboken, N.J.|publisher=J. Wiley & Sons|isbn=0471268925|pages=28–32}}</ref> [[Mohanajodaro]], [[Kaalibanga]] , [[Lothal]] , [[Dholaavira]] , [[Raakhigari]] , aur [[Harppa]] isake pramukh kendr the. British kaal men hui khudaaiyon ke aadhaar par puraatatvavettaa aur Historyakaaron kaa anumaan hae ki yah atyant vikasit civilization thi aur ye shahar anek baar base aur ujare hae.
chaarls maesen ne pahali baar is puraani civilization ko khojaa. Kaningham ne [[1872]] men is civilization ke baare me sarvekshan kiyaa. Phlit ne is puraani civilization ke baare me ek lekh likhaa. [[1921]] men [[Dayaaraam saahani]] ne harppaa kaa utkhanan kiyaa. Is prakaar is civilization kaa naam harppaa civilization rakhaa gayaa. Yah civilization sindhu nadi ghaati me phaeli hui thi isalie isakaa naam Indus Valley civilization rakhaa gayaa. Pratham baar nagaron ke uday ke kaaran ise pratham nagarikaran bhi kahaa jaataa hae pratham baar [[Kaansy]] ke prayog ke kaaran ise [[Kaansy yuga|kaansy Civilization]] bhi kahaa jaataa hae. Sindhu ghaati civilization ke 1400 kendron ko khojaa jaa sakaa hae jisamen se 925 kendr India men hae. 80 percentt sthal sarasvati nadi aur usaki sahaayak nadiyo ke aasa-paas hae. Abhi taka{{when}} kul khojon men se 3 percent sthalon kaa hi utkhanan ho paayaa hae.
 
== Naamotpatti ==
[[Image:IVC Map.png|thumbnail|right|260px|harppaa sanskriti ke sthal]]
is civilization kaa kshetr sansaar ki sabhi praachin civilizationon ke kshetr se anek gunaa baraa aur vishaal thaa.<ref>{{cite web |url= Http://hindi.indiawaterportal.org/content/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80-%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%80-%E0%A4%B5-%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%9A%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%AE-%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%AD%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE
|title=Sarasvati nadi v praachinatam civilization|accessmonthday=[[15 janavari]]|accessyear=[[2009]]|format=|publisher=Indiyaa vaatar portal (hindi)|language=}}</ref> is paripakv civilization ke kendra-sthal panjaab tathaa [[Sindh]] men thaa. Tatpashchaat isakaa vistaar dakshin aur puurvpurv ki dishaa men huaa. Is prakaar harppaa sanskriti ke antargat panjaaba, sindh aur baluuchistaanbaluchistaan ke bhaag hi nahin, balki [[Gujaraat]], [[Raajasthaan]], [[Hariyaana]] aur pashchimi [[Uttar pradesh]] ke simaant bhaag bhi the. Isakaa phaelaav uttar men [[JammuuJammu]] se lekar dakshin men [[Narmada]] ke muhaane tak aur pashchim men [[BaluuchistaanBaluchistaan]] ke [[Makaraan]] samudr tat se lekar uttar puurvpurv men [[Merath]] tak thaa. Yah sampuurnsampurn kshetr tribhujaakaar hae aur isakaa kshetraphal 12,99,600 varg kilomitar hae. Is tarah yah kshetr aadhunik paakistaan se to baraa hae hi, [[Praachin misr]] aur [[Mesopotaamiya]] se bhi baraa hae. Isaa puurvpurv tisari aur duusaridusari sahastraabdi men sansaar bhaar men kisi bhi civilization kaa kshetr harppaa sanskriti se baraa nahin thaa. Ab tak [[Bhaaratiy upamahaadvip]] men is sanskriti ke kul 1000 sthalon kaa pataa chal chukaa hae. Inamen se kuchh aaranbhik avasthaa ke hae to kuchh paripakv avasthaa ke aur kuchh uttaravarti avasthaa ke. Paripakv avasthaa vaale kam jagah hi hae. Inamen se aadhe darjanon ko hi nagar ki sanjञा di jaa sakati hae. Inamen se do nagar bahut hi mahatvapuurnmahatvapurn hae - panjaab kaa harppaa tathaa sindh kaa mohen jo daro (shaabdik arth - ''preton kaa tilaa''). Dono hi sthal paakistaan men hae. Dono ek duusaredusare se 483 kimi duurdur the aur sindhu nadi dvaaraa jure hue the. Tisaraa nagar mohen jo daro se 130 kimi dakshin men chanhudaro sthal par thaa to chau thaa nagar gujaraat ke khanbhaat ki khaari ke upar '''lothala''' naamak sthal para. Isake atirikt raajasthaan ke uttari bhaag men '''kaalibangaan''' (shaabdik arth -''kaale rang ki chuuriyaanchuriyaan'') tathaa hariyaanaa ke [[Hisaar jilaa|hisaar jile]] kaa banaavali. In sabhi sthalon par paripakv tathaa unnat harppaa sanskriti ke darshan hote hae. Sutakaagendor tathaa surakotaraa ke samudratatiy nagaron men bhi is sanskriti ki paripakv avasthaa dikhaai deti hae. In donon ki visheshataa hae ek ek nagar durg kaa honaa. Uttar ङrppaa avasthaa gujaraat ke kathiyaavaar praayadvip men rangapur aur rojari sthalon par bhi paai gai hae. Is sabhya्taa ki jaaऩkaari sabase pehale 1826 me chaalsr‍chaalsr maen ko praapt hui.
 
== Nagar nirmaan yojanaa ==
[[Image:Dholavira1.JPG|thumbnail|right|260px]]
is civilization ki sabase vishesh baat thi yahaan ki vikasit nagar nirmaan yojanaa. Harppaa tathaa mohan jodaro dono nagaron ke apane durg the jahaan shaasak varg kaa parivaar rahataa thaa. Pratyek nagar men durg ke baahar ek ek usase nimn star kaa shahar thaa jahaan inton ke makaanon men saamaany log rahate the. In nagar bhavanon ke baare men vishesh baat ye thi ki ye jaal ki tarah vinyast the. Yaani sarke ek duusaredusare ko samakon par kaatati thin aur nagar anek aayataakaar khandon men vibhakt ho jaataa thaa. Ye baat sabhi sindhu bastiyon par laaguulaagu hoti thin chaahe ve chhoti hon yaa bari. Harppaa tathaa mohan jodaro ke bhavan bare hote the. Vahaan ke smaarak is baat ke pramaan hae ki vahaan ke shaasak majaduurmajadur jutaane aur kara-sangrah men param kushal the. Inton ki bari-bari imaarat dekh kar saamaany logon ko bhi yah lagegaa ki ye shaasak kitane prataapi aur pratishthaavaan the.
 
mohan jodaro kaa ab tak kaa sabase prasiddh sthal hae vishaal saarvajanik snaanaagaara, jisakaa jalaashay durg ke tile men hae. Yah into ke sthaapaty kaa ek sundar udaaharan hae. Yab 11.88 mitar lanbaa, 7.01 mitar chau raa aur 2.43 mitar gaharaa hae. Dono siron par tal tak jaane ki siriyaan lagi hae. Bagal men kapare badalane ke kamare hae. Snaanaagaar kaa pharsh paki inton kaa banaa hae. Paas ke kamare men ek baraa saa kunaa hae jisakaa paani nikaal kar hoja़ men daalaa jaataa thaa. Hauja़ ke kone men ek nirgam (Outlet) hae jisase paani bahakar naale men jaataa thaa. Aesaa maanaa jaataa hae ki yah vishaal snaanaagar dharmaanushthaan sambandhi snaan ke lie banaa hogaa jo India men paaranparik ruuprup se dhaarmik kaaryon ke lie aavashyak rahaa hae. Mohan jodaro ki sabase baraa sanrachanaa hae - anaaj rakhane kaa kothaara, jo 45.71 mitar lanbaa aur 15.23 mitar chau raa hae. Harppaa ke durg men chha kothaar mile hae jo inton ke chabuutarechabutare par do paanton men khare hae. Har ek kothaar 15.23 mi. Lanbaa tathaa 6.09 mi. Chau raa hae aur nadi ke kinaare se kuchhek mitar ki duuriduri par hae. In baarah ikaaiyon kaa talakshetr lagabhag 838.125 varg mi. Hae jo lagabhag utanaa hi hotaa hae jitanaa mohan jodaro ke kothaar kaa. Harppaa ke kothaaron ke dakshin men khulaa pharsh hae aur isapar do kataaron men int ke vrittaakaar chabuutarechabutare bane hue hae. Pharsh ki daraaron men gehuungehun aur jau ke daane mile hae. Isase pratit hotaa hae ki in chabuutaronchabutaron par pha़sal ki davani hoti thi. Harppaa men do kamaron vaale baerak bhi mile hae jo shaayad majaduuronmajaduron ke rahane ke lie bane the. Kaalibangaan men bhi nagar ke dakshin bhaag men inton ke chabuutarechabutare bane hae jo shaayad kothaaron ke lie bane honge. Is prakaar yah spasht hotaa hae ki kothaar harppaa sanskriti ke abhinn ang the.
 
harppaa sanskriti ke nagaron men int kaa istemaal ek vishesh baat hae, kyonki isi samay ke misr ke bhavanon men dhuupdhup men suukhisukhi int kaa hi prayog huaa thaa. Samakaalin mesopetaamiyaa men pakki inton kaa prayog milataa to hae par itane bare paemaane par nahin jitanaa Indus Valley civilization men. Mohan jodaro ki jal nikaas pranaali adbhut thi. Lagabhag har nagar ke har chhote yaa bare makaan men praangan aur snaanaagaar hotaa thaa. Kaalibangaan ke anek gharon men apane-apane kuen the. Gharon kaa paani bahakar sarkon tak aataa jahaan inake niche moriyaan (naaliyaan) bani thin. Aksar ye moriyaan inton aur patthar ki silliyon se dhakin hoti thin. Sarkon ki in moriyon men naramokhe bhi bane hote the. Sarkon aur moriyon ke avashesh banaavali men bhi mile hae.
 
== Aarthik jivan ==
=== Krishi evan pashupaalan ===
aaj ke mukaabale sindhu pradesh puurvpurv men bahut upajaau thaa. Isaa-puurvpurv chau thi sadi men sikandar ke ek itidaasakaar ne kahaa thaa ki sindh is desh ke upajaau kshetron men ginaa jaataa thaa. PuurvPurv kaal men praakritik vanaspati bahut thin jisake kaaran yahaan achchhi varshaa hoti thi. Yahaan ke vanon se inte pakaane aur imaarat banaane ke lie lakari bare paemaane par istemaal men laai gai jisake kaaran dhire dhire vanon kaa vistaar simatataa gayaa. Sindhu ki urvarataa kaa ek kaaran sindhu nadi se prativarsh aane vaali baar bhi thi. Gaanv ki rakshaa ke lie khari paki int ki divaar ingit karati hae baar har saal aati thi. Yahaan ke log baar ke utar jaane ke baad [[Navanbar]] ke mahine men baar vaale maedaanon men bij bo dete the aur agali baar ke aane se pahale april ke mahine men genhuugenhu aur jau ki pha़sal kaat lete the. Yahaan koi phaavaraa yaa phaal to nahin milaa hae lekin kaalibangaan ki praak-harppaa civilization ke jo kuuntkunt (halarekhaa) mile hae unase aabhaas hotaa hae ki raajasthaan men is kaal men hal jote jaate the.
 
Indus Valley civilization ke log [[GenhuuGenhu]], [[Jau ]], [[Raai]], [[Matar]], [[Jvaar]] aadi anaaj paedaa karate the. Ve do kism ki genhuugenhu paedaa karate the. Banaavali men milaa jau unnat kism kaa hae. Isake alaavaa ve [[Til]] aur [[Sarason]] bhi upajaate the. Sabase pahale [[Kapaas]] bhi yahin paedaa ki gai. Isi ke naam par yaूnaan ke log is sindan (Sindon) kahane lage. Harppaa yonto ek krishi pradhaan sanskriti thi par yahaan ke log pashupaalan bhi karate the. [[Bael]]-[[Gaay]], [[Bhaens]], [[Bakari]], [[Bher]] aur [[SuuarSuar]] paalaa jaataa thaa . Harppaai logon ko [[Haathi]] tathaa [[Gaendaa|gaende]] kaa knowledge thaa.
 
=== Business ===
yahaan ke log aapas men patthara, dhaatu shalk (haddi) aadi kaa business karate the. Ek bare bhuubhaagbhubhaag men dher saari sil (mrinmudraa), ekaruupekarup lipi aur maanakikrit maap tau l ke pramaan mile hae. Ve chakke se parichit the aur sanbhavata aajakal ke ikke (ratha) jaesaa koi vaahan prayog karate the. Ye [[Afganistan]] aur [[Iraan]] ([[Pharas]]) se business karate the. Unhone uttari Afganistanmen ek commercial upanivesh sthaapit kiyaa jisase unhen business men sahuuliyatsahuliyat hoti thi. Bahut si harppaai sil mesopotaamiyaa men mili hae jinase lagataa hae ki mesopotaamiyaa se bhi unakaa business sambandh thaa. Mesopotaamiyaa ke abhilekhon men meluhaa ke saath business ke pramaan mile hae saath hi do madhyavarti business kendron kaa bhi ullekh milataa hae - dalamun aur maakana. Dilamun ki pahachaan shaayad pha़ाras ki khaari ke baharin ke ki jaa sakati hae.
 
== Raajanaetik jivan ==
itanaa to spasht hae ki harppaa ki vikasit nagar nirmaan pranaali, vishaal saarvajanik snaanaagaaron kaa astitv aur videshon se businessik sanbandha
kisi bari raajanaetik sattaa ke binaa nahin huaa hogaa par isake pukhtaa pramaan nahin mile hae ki yahaan ke shaasak kaese the aur shaasan pranaali kaa svaruupsvarup kyaa thaa. Lekin nagar vyavasthaa ko dekhakar lagataa hae ki koi nagar nigam jaesi sthaaniy svashaasan vaali sansthaa thi|
 
== Dhaarmik jivan ==
[[Image:IndusValleySeals swastikas.JPG|thumbnail|right|260px]]
harppaa men paki mitti ki stri muurtikaaenmurtikaaen bhaari sankhyaa men mili hae. Ek muurtimurti men stri ke garbh se nikalataa ek pau dhaa dikhaayaa gayaa hae. Vidvaanon ke mat men yah prithvi devi ki pratimaa hae aur isakaa nikat sanbandh pau dhon ke janm aur vriddhi se rahaa hogaa. Isalie maaluummaalum hotaa hae ki yahaan ke log dharati ko urvarataa ki devi samajhate the aur isaki puujaapujaa usi tarah karate the jis tarah misr ke log [[Nil nadi]] ki devi aaisis ki. Lekin praachin misr ki tarah yahaan kaa samaaj bhi maatri pradhaan thaa ki nahin yah kahanaa mushkil hae. Kuchh vaedik suuktonsukton men prithvi maataa ki stuti hae, kintu unakon koi pramukhataa nahin di gai hae. Kaalaantar men hi hinduuhindu dharm men maatridevi ko uchch sthaan milaa hae. Isaa ki chhathi sadi aur usake baad se hi [[Durga]], [[Anba]], [[Chandi]] aadi deviyon ko aaraadhy deviyon kaa sthaan milaa.
 
yahaan mile sil par purush devataa kaa chitr mahaayogi aadinaath bhagavaan kaa hae jo jaeno ke pahale tirthakar hae bhaensaa vo bhaensaa n hokar vel {oxe}hae jo aasan ke niche paayaa gayaa hae. Vo aadinaath kaa chhin hae. Yah saty hae ki yahaan par ling puujaapujaa kaa bhi prachalan thaa parantu aadinaath yahaan ke prarmukh dev the. Hiran bhagavaan shaantinaath kaa chhin hae. Baagh yaa sher bhaagavaan mahaavir kaa chhin hae.haathi bhagavaan ajitaath kaa chhin hae prmaanaanusaar ऋgved me varanit vraaty jaati jo vaatarasanaa muni ko pujaa karate the vaatarasanaa muni yaani jaen muni yaa jaen tirthakar vraaty yahaan ki pramukh jaati thi any jaatiyon mae naag asur thae aur kai mahaan logo ne yah pramaanit bhi kiyaa
 
== Shilp aur takaniki knowledge ==
[[Image:Mohenjo-daro Priesterkönig.jpeg|thumbnail|right|220px|mohenjodaaro men paai gai ek muurtimurti - karaanchi ke raashtriy sangrahaalay se]]
[[Image:Dancing girl mohenjodaro.jpg|thumbnail|left|260px|The "dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro."]]
[[Image:The_'Ten_Indus_Scripts'_discovered_near_the_northern_gateway_of_the_Dholavira_citadel.jpg|thumbnail|sindhu-sarasvati civilization ke das varn jo [[Dholaavira]] ke uttari get ke nikat san 2000 isavi men khoje gaye hae]]
yadyapi is yug ke log pattharon ke bahut saare aujaar tathaa upakaran prayog karate the par ve kaanse ke nirmaan se bhali bhinti parichit the. Taanbe tathaa tin milaakar dhaatushilpi [[Kaansy]] kaa nirmaan karate the. Hanlaanki yahaan dono men se koi bhi khanij prachur maatraa men upalabdh nahin thaa. SuutiSuti kapare bhi bune jaate the. Log naav bhi banaate the. Mudraa nirmaana, muurtikaamurtikaa nirmaan ke saat baratan banaanaa bhi pramukh shilp thaa.
 
praachin [[Mesopotaamiya]] ki tarah yahaan ke logon ne bhi lekhan kalaa kaa aavishkaar kiyaa thaa. Harppaai lipi kaa pahalaa namuunaanamunaa 1853 isvi men milaa thaa aur [[1923]] men puuripuri lipi prakaash men aai parantu ab tak pari nahin jaa saki hae. Lipi kaa knowledge ho jaane ke kaaran niji sampatti kaa lekhaa-jokhaa aasaan ho gayaa. Business ke lie unhen maap tau l ki aavashyakataa hui aur unhone isakaa prayog bhi kiyaa. Baat ke tarah ki kai vastue mili hae. Unase pataa chalataa hae ki tau l men 16 yaa usake aavartakon (jaese - 16, 32, 48, 64, 160, 320, 640, 1280 ityaadi) kaa upayog hotaa thaa. Dilachasp baat ye hae ki aadhunik kaal tak India men 1 [[RuupayaRupaya]] 16 aane kaa hotaa thaa. 1 kilo men 4 paav hote the aur har paav men 4 kanavaan yaani ek kilo men kul 16 kanavaan.
 
== Avasaan ==
yah civilization mukhyata 2500 iB.puuC. Se 1800 i. PuuPu. Tak rahi. Aesaa aabhaas hotaa hae ki yah sabhya्taa apane antim charan men hvaasonmukh thi. Is samay makaanon men puraani inton ke prayog ki jaanakaari milati hae. Isake vinaash ke kaaranon par vidvaan ekamat nahin hae. Sindhu ghaati civilization ke avasaan ke pichhe vibhinn tark diye jaate hae jaese: barbar aakramana, jalavaayu parivartan evan paaristhitik asantulana, baadh tathaa bhuubhu-taatvik parivartana, mahaamaari, aarthik kaarana. Aesaa lagataa hae ki is civilization ke patan kaa koi ek kaaran nahin thaa balki vibhinn kaaranon ke mel se aesaa huaa. Jo alag alag samay men yaa ek saath hone ki sambhaavanaa hae. Mohenjo daro me naga‍rnagar aur jal nikaas ki management se mahaamari ki sambhaavan kam lagati hae. Bhishan agnikaand ke bhi pramaan praapt hue hae. Mohenjodaro ke ek kamare se 14 nar kankaal mile hae jo aakramana, aagajani, mahaamaari ke sanket hae.
 
== Chitr dirghaa ==
<gallery>
File:WellAndBathingPlatforms-Harappa.jpg|Indus Valley civilization ke nagar men sthit ek kuaan aur snaan ghar
File:Votive_Image_of_Bull,_ca._2000_B.C.E._Hand-modeled_terracotta._Brooklyn_Museum.jpg|ek bael ke muurtimurti
File:A_drain_at_Lothal.jpg|lothaal sthit praachin nagar men sthit ek naali
File:Red_pottery,_IVC.jpg|laal mitti se bane ek paatr ke avashesh
{{Link FA|cs}}
{{Link FA|nl}}
 
 
 
[[ar:حضارة وادي السند]]