Plate tectonics [1] geology ke baare me ek theory hae jisme dunia ke uppar waala layer ke baare me samjhawa jaawe hae.

The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century.
Tectonic plates (surfaces are preserved)

epicenters, 1963–1998

Global plate tectonic movement


  1. Greek τέκτων, tektōn "builder" nai to "mason"
  • McKnight, Tom 2004. Geographica: The complete illustrated Atlas of the world, Barnes and Noble Books; New York ISBN 0-7607-5974-X
  • Stanley, Steven M. 1999. Earth system history. Freeman. p211–228 ISBN 0-7167-2882-6
  • Thompson, Graham R. and Turk, Jonathan 1991. Modern physical geology, Saunders. ISBN 0-03-025398-5
  • Turcotte D.L. and Schubert G. 2002. Geodynamics 2nd ed, Wiley, New York. ISBN 0-521-66624-4

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